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Misinformation and More

Learn about misinformation, disinformation, malinformation, fake news, propaganda, and more.

Want to Learn More? Try these Books.


Written in 1928, this was the first book to discuss the manipulation of the masses and democracy by government spin and propaganda.

Network Propaganda

Analyzing millions of news stories together with Twitter and Facebook shares, broadcast television and YouTube, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the architecture of contemporary American political communications.

How Propaganda Works

How Propaganda Works shows that an understanding of propaganda and its mechanisms is essential for the preservation and protection of liberal democracies everywhere.

Fake News

This title explores journalistic and fact-checking standards, Constitutional protections, and real-world case studies, helping readers identify the mechanics, perpetrators, motives, and psychology of fake news.

The Truth Matters

Written by Capitol Hill veteran and longtime journalist Bruce Bartlett, The Truth Matters teaches you how to drive through a media environment littered with potholes and other dangers, providing actionable tips, tricks, recommendations, and shortcuts for both casual news consumers and journalists.


Through the weaponization of social media, the internet is changing war and politics, just as war and politics are changing the internet.

Sharing Posts

This book examines the growth and influence of fake news in the United States and beyond.

The Encyclopedia of Misinformation

Encyclopedic in scope, but with an incisive voice tuned to these bedeviling times, this is the modern reference book to engage a world rife with artifice and deception.


Post-truth is bigger than fake news and bigger than social media. It's about the slow rise of a political, media, and online infrastructure that has devalued truth.

All About Information Disorder

Information Disorder is a term created by researchers Claire Wardle and Hossein Derakhshan to describe related types of misleading information such as fake news, disinformation, misinformation, malinformation, and propaganda.

Listen to Claire Wardle discuss transforming the internet into a place of trust below.

There are many words used to define problematic information. This list includes definitions.

By GDJ - archive copy at the Wayback Machine (archived on 30 December 2018), CC0,"What is fake news exactly? Fake news is just as it sounds: news that is misleading and not based on fact or, simply put, fake...fake news has the intention of disseminating false information, not for comedy, but for consumption."

Disinformation - Deliberately false information.

Echo Chambers - Situation in online spaces where like-minded persons only hear one viewpoint, opinion, or see the same information.

Filter Bubbles - Social media sites use algorithms (computer programs) to keep track of a person's preferences, resulting in a person only seeing content customized to their views.

Malinformation - Truthful information used to damage or damage by implication. An example might be leaks timed to damage.

Misinformation -  Erroneous or incorrect information. Misinformation may not always be deliberate; it's just wrong or mistaken.

Propaganda - Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation etc.

Source: Adapted from Huff, D. (1954). How to Lie With Statistics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Fact-checking websites can help you investigate claims to help you determine whether what you hear or read is true. These resources can help you determine the legitimacy of a claim, but even fact-checking websites should be examined critically. 

Access to Newspapers & Magazines in English & Spanish

Did you know you have access to hundreds of magazines and newspapers through the library databases?  Did you know you have access to the New York Times?  Use the library's resources to access quality, credible news sources and more.