The Effect of an Alternative School Calendar on the Academic Achievement and Attendance of Tenth Grade Students in South San Antonio Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas
By Adkins, O. Raye (Doctor of Education—Texas A&M University, 2001)
Call Number: None
The major purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an alternative calendar on the attendance and academic achievement of tenth grade students in the South San Antonio Independent School District. A secondary purpose was to determine whether modifications to the traditional calendar affected teacher’s perceptions of instructional effectiveness and classroom management and climate.
The population for this study included 764 tenth grade students and 14 English teachers at the South San Antonio High School. This population generated a sample of 656 tenth grade students and 13 English teachers eligible for participation in the study. Data collection on students included demographic information, English II class grades, and attendance. An opinioinnaire was developed by the researcher to assess teacher’s perceptions on the impact of the calendar in the areas of instructional effectiveness and classroom management and climate. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis of data collected from the student records and teacher opinionnaires.
The study confirmed that moving to an alternative calendar did not impact academic achievement and attendance of students. While the results of this study do not indicate significant improvement or impairment of academic achievement and attendance with the alternative calendar as compared to the traditional calendar, research established a strong relationship between time and learning and indicated that time efficiency is a crucial component to school reform. The need for improvement in education was the underlying reason for the district moving to an alternative calendar.
Students enrolled in remedial coursework or had previously failed English I or II were not eligible for the study. It is important to note that consideration of these students was crucial to the success of school reform addressing academic achievement. Students who were frequently absent are likely to also receive poor grades and experience failure.
The implications from the findings of this research study are numerous and may impact calendar development, class schedules, staff development, and campus planning. The researcher recommends further research to assess the impact of the calendar format on student achievement and attendance.
Factors Influencing Academic Achievement Among Pre-College Program Participants at a Private, Four-Year University
By Dansby, Jacqueline O. (Doctor of Philosophy—Texas A&M University, August 1999)
Call Number: None
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the academic achievement of low and high achievers enrolled in a pre-college program at a private, four-year university. The study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between academic achievement (grade point average) and (1) ability as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS); (2) past achievements including courses completed (3) use of out-of-school time; and (4) post high school plans.
A questionnaire was administered to the population of high school achievers and low enrolled in the Upward Bound Program at St. Mary’s University in San Antonio during the 1997-98 academic year. The grade point average and Texas Assessment of Academic Skills results were collected from student records. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a random sample of low and high achievers. Based on an analysis of data from low and high achievers, it was found that academic achievement was influenced by (1) past achievements and courses taken; (2) use of out-of-school time; and (3) and post high school plans. A small difference was found in ability as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) between low and high achievers.
Educational administrators of pre-college programs must be cognizant of factors that influence academic achievement among high and low achievers in designing effective services, particularly with respect to the provision of academic skill development, advisement on selection of high school courses and guidance with respect to academic preparation of participants. They must be able to articulate the impact of identified factors to parents, teachers and service providers within the community in the context of effective strategies designed to strengthen the academic preparation of pre-college program participants. In an era of shrinking fiscal support for education, the implications of this study may better enable policy makers to determine priorities in allocating limited financial resources that will result in increased academic preparation and raised levels of academic achievement among pre-college program participants.
Transformation from entrepreneur to happeneur : disrupting the status quo
By Bethel, Paulette Martinez (Ph.D. Thesis--University of the Incarnate Word, 2009).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 BETHEL 2009
This qualitative program evaluation was conducted to determine the efficacy and usefulness of a two-pronged Internet business-development education program in promoting the entrepreneurial competencies of a group of executive and business coaches who participated in the 26-week-long Charter Happeneurship Program (CHP).
Eight CHP members, 4 females and 4 males, whose ages ranged from 35 to 65, participated in the study. Interviews were conducted with the participants, who were located throughout the United States and in 3 international locations. The analysis revealed 4 major themes and 14 sub-themes that related to the perceived success of the program. The 4 major themes were: (a) entrepreneurial background, (b) delivery of program, (c) delivery of instruction, and (d) outcomes.\
The majority of the participants reported less-than-positive feelings about the efficacy and usefulness of the Internet technology skills acquisition component of the CHP in terms of how well it met their Internet entrepreneurship needs and expectations. Whether participants viewed this segment as positive or negative depended on their perceptions about the course curriculum and the delivery of instruction, their comfort with technology, and the level of support they received. By contrast, all participants viewed the professional development component as positive and satisfactory. This module offered them the opportunity for enhanced self-knowledge, critical self-reflection, and greater insights into their entrepreneurial propensities, strengths, and weaknesses.
Overall, this transformative learning experience stimulated a desire among the participants to learn more about what Internet entrepreneurial strategies work best. Despite challenges faced during the active CHP engagement, the participants still reported motivation to take action on their Internet entrepreneurial visions. The conclusion drawn from this study was, when done right, entrepreneurship education programs can offer opportunities for aspiring and nascent entrepreneurs to shorten their learning curve and improve upon their entrepreneurial acumen through hands-on practice within a structured learner-centered setting.
Recommendations focus on (a) the need for key stakeholders to ensure compatibility between what is being taught and supporting the needs of the learners, and (b) the importance of conducting ongoing evaluations and assessments to obtain feedback to benchmark “what works” and for developing and delivering effective curricula adequate for the task in entrepreneurship course offerings.
African American Male Business Leaders: Perceived Factors of Motivation Leading to Success
By Calvert, Velica (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, December 2011).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 CALVERT 2011
The purpose of this research study was to investigate the perceived factors of motivation that contributed to the success of eight African American male business leaders who participated in this study. A qualitative interpretative approach was used, and several key areas were explored to include: (a) the impact of family on success, (b) how social factors impact success, (c) the role of culture on success, (d) how motivation affects success, and (e) the role of education on success.
Participants were chosen through purposeful sampling, and face to face interviews were conducted. Open ended questions were developed in order to solicit active participation and to gather detailed information about the lived experiences of each participant. The theoretical framework used for this study was Lent, Hackett, and Brown’s Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), which is based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory.
Results of the study revealed several common themes that the participants felt contributed to their success which included: (a) the impact of family, (b) belief in self, (c) helping others, (d) faith, and (e) personal challenges. Although these factors became apparent, the single most important factor of motivation for the participants in this study was family encouragement. All participants named a family member or both parents when asked, who they most admired and what had been some of the driving forces in their lives.
The goal of this study was to add to the body of knowledge related to African American male business leaders, to gain a deeper understanding of some of the sacrifices as well as success factors that may be beneficial to others, and to suggest areas for further research in order to ensure a renewed focus on the success of these as well as other African American males.
A History of St. Philip’s Church, San Antonio, Texas. Implications for the Episcopal Church’s Ministry to the Black Community.
By Davis, Milbrew (Doctor of Ministry—San Francisco Theological Seminary, 1985).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 DAVIS 1985
There was no written history of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church, San Antonio, Texas, and resources available to the Episcopal Church on the Black experience in the church are sparse and limited. This Dissertation/Project is designed to provide an historical resource on the organization, development, and experience of St. Philip’s Church as a reference source for future generations of this church in particular and for use of The Episcopal Church’s ministry to the Black community in general.
The Dissertation/Project is limited to an in-depth study of the historical development of St. Philip’s Church, San Antonio, Texas, from the perspective of the people—its members, pastors, bishops—since its organization in 1895, to present. Special emphasis is given to a critical assessment of some of the evolving theological, sociological, political, and economic situations of the time with a focus on the impact these has specifically on the development of this Black congregation.
The study is based on a selective review of some of the literature on Black history, the history and religion of Black people in the United States, and some of the literature on the history of the Episcopal Church in the United States with particular attention and focus on the Church’s ministry to Black people. An in-depth study of St. Philip’s Church, San Antonio, Texas, is done which includes, but is not limited to, a review of available parish documents, Bishop’s Journals, Journals of Diocesan Council Meetings with critical assessment and interpretive conclusions based on these documents, and interviews with significant lay persons, priests, and bishops.
On the basis of the data collected, specific conclusions or learnings emerged. These learnings are set forth as they have useful implications for St. Philip’s parish, as well as other Black Episcopal parishes/missions, and the Episcopal Church in general in its ministry to the Black community.
Some of the learnings and implications that emerged are: (1) The need to establish systematized ways of collecting and maintaining data of historical significance to the parish/mission and The Episcopal Church in general. Persons of the Church with expertise in this area might be used to facilitate awareness and training. (2) There is a need for some means of reporting data on the number of communicants by ethnic background and this should be addressed by the Church. (3) If the Church is to be more effective in its ministry to the Black community there is the need for the Church to become more cognizant of the corollary between the Exodus event and the plight of Black people enslaved and taken to the United States. (4) Because of the prominent status of the Black minister has traditionally held among Black people, there is the need for the Church to move aggressively recruit Black persons for the priesthood and provide financial assistance to enable them to obtain the education and training needed. (5) There is a need for more involvement of Black persons in every aspect and at all levels of the Church, particularly in positions at the decision-making level. (6) There is a need for bringing together formalism and emotionalism into a rational, empathetic religious freedom that would enhance the religious expressions of the Black culture, with a lively faith, a joyous pilgrimage marked by civility and a passion for helping the disadvantaged. Such a synthesis has the potential of bringing Blacks and whites together in the churches and in society for the purpose of transforming segregated human associations and psyches.
Panama’s Low-Income Consumers Brand Loyalty Panamanian Consumers
By Gerald, Rossand (Ph.D. Business Administration Dissertation—Argosy University, 2009).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 GERALD 2009
The research problem focused on Panama’s low-income consumer’s decision making process when shopping for consumer-products. The purpose of the research was to determine Panama’s low-income consumer’s consumption values, preferences and loyalty towards a particular brand over another. The qualitative research method was employed in this study, and data collection process consisted of observation and in-depth interview documents that were organized and categorized. The results of the study found that Panama’s low-income consumer’s brand preferences were widely varied and brand loyalty behavior was influenced by consumers’ knowledge, perceptions and commitment towards a particular product and service provider. Recommendation for further study addressed the marketing strategy that could be used to identify consumers’ consumption preferences and loyalty towards a particular brand.
Dispositional Resistance to Change and Impression Management Behavior
By Hardaway, Harold (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, December 2010).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 HARDAWAY 2010
This research connects the construct of dispositional resistance to change with impression management. The study was conducted at a retailer in the southwest United States, specifically the information technology and risk management departments. Oreg’s (2003) Resistance to Change Scale was used to measure dispositional resistance to change, and Bolino & Turnley’s (1999) Impression Management Scale was used to measure impression management behavior. The significance of the present study, from a research perspective, is that it contributes to the body of knowledge by answering the call to study additional dispositional antecedents to impression management behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized models for the relationship between dispositional resistance to change impression management behavior at the second order factor level. Results specifically show dispositional resistance to change as an antecedent to impression management behavior. The significant relationship between dispositional resistance and impression management places impression management behaviors as change resistant behaviors. Results of the study also offer direction for future research.
Factors that Affect Succession in African American Family-Owned Businesses: A Case Study
By Hunt, Charles W. (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, December 2006).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 HUNT 2006
A great deal of literature confirms the fact that small family-owned businesses rarely extend beyond the founder of the business. This study explored and identified factors that helped to create a successful family business transition for two African American family-owned businesses in the San Antonio area. One family experienced working through a well thought-out succession plan that successfully passed the mantel from one generation to the next, while the other family experienced going through an unexpected, unplanned business succession that was also successful. Understanding the factors that help create a successful family business transition is difficult because there is very little scholarly research that has an in-depth focus on the African American family business. The research design used was a Phenomenological Qualitative Historical Case Study.
The findings revealed that both families’ success may be attributed to factors such as being raised by both of their parents and being taught family values, hard work, responsibility, and accountability. Self-preservation, the first law of nature, was taught to make them aware of the importance of taking care of self first, so they could take care of others. As children, they watched their parents at work, which gave them the opportunity to shape and mold their own work ethic with a strong family influence.
Most of the children in both families were socialized into the family business and never worked elsewhere. Both families were very active in church and made the church the center of their social life. All of the family members had mentors and/or role models as a child, at school, and at work. The researcher concludes that it is important to note a plan for succession should consist of three elements, all of which must precede the actual succession by a few months. A plan for succession occurred in one case; however, in the second case, it occurred several months after succession took place.
African American Female Persisters in Higher Education: The Lived Experience
By Johnson, Arla Janeen (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, May 2008).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 JOHNSON 2008
In the American college/university system, there is an ongoing nation-wide problem as it relates to African American students, their college enrollment, and subsequent matriculation. The number of African American females enrolling in college from year to year is steadily increasing, while the number of African American males enrolling in college on a yearly basis is decreasing. In fact, the numbers are increasing so rapidly that African American females are outpacing African American males on all three-degree levels. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of persistence of African American females, raised in Texas, as a catalyst to achieving their educational goals. The aforementioned information leads to the following question: What are the external and internal factors that contribute to the higher educational success of the African American female? Identification and examination of potential factors that influence some African American females persisting in higher education is the goal of this research. Hopefully, the verbalization of the participants experience, the tragedy and the triumph, will help to facilitate a better understanding of African American females as a whole, and ultimately as a group of persisters who are one-by –one breaking down walls, shattering myths, and perpetuating intellectual activism thoughout their communities.
A Grounded Theory of the Course-Choosing Experiences of African American High School Students and Their Families Related to Advance-Level Courses
By Jones, Brenda Laverne (Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Supervision)
(The University of Texas at San Antonio, December 2009).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 JONES 2009
Research findings indicate that students’ course selections impact the racial and ethnic achievement gap. Exposure to advanced-level courses has been found to lessen this gap and enhances success after high school. Despite this, African American students tend to evidence lower participation in these courses than do other racial and ethnic student groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand and discover factors that influence the course-choosing behaviors of students with a goal of assisting them through academic guidance and career planning. The findings indicated that student participants’ thoughts and feelings derived from their experiences, which affected their confidence, motivation, and self efficacy levels. Experiences perceived by participants as negative bred apprehension that adversely impacted beliefs in personal competencies, and non-participation in the courses. Positively perceived experiences bred success and contributed to increased confidence, strong beliefs in personal competencies, and enrollment in the courses. The theory that evolved from this analysis is that students’ thoughts and feelings about their personal competencies greatly impacted their course-choosing decisions and served as determinants for enrollment (or not) in advanced-level courses. Implications for students and their families, counselors, and the broader academic community are discussed.
The Influence of Hip-Hop Culture on the Communication Skills of Students as Perceived by Teachers at Selected High Schools in Houston, Texas
By Kelley, Ron (Doctor of Philosophy—Texas A&M University, August 2006).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 KELLEY 2006
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hip-hop culture on the communication skills of students as perceived by teachers at three high schools in Houston, Texas. Hip-hop culture consists of rap music, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying. Hip-hop is currently one of the most popular forms of music and represents the dominant culture of today’s inner-city youth. The researcher issued written surveys to 30 teachers in Houston, Texas. The high schools selected for this study were: Yates High School (Houston Independent School District), Wheatley High School (Houston Independent School District), and Eisenhower High School (Aldine Independent School District). Two teachers were also interviewed for the study. The final part of the study was the production of an educational hip-hop CD by the researcher. The literature review focuses on the history and practices of hip-hop in regard to language.
Once the surveys were received and the interviews were completed, the researcher compiled statistics regarding the background information of the participants and the level of influence that each teacher felt that hip-hop culture has on students. The major findings of the study were:
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends:
An Analysis on the Effects of Teamwork Training on the Proficiency of High Performance Teams in the International Exhibit Industry
By Lawton, Chatwell Lajoyce (Doctor of Education—University of Oklahoma 2000).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 LAWTON 2000
Description (Introductory Statement):
High-performance work practices in the late-1990s increasingly are a focus of management attention. Organizing workers into self-managed work teams (SMWTs) is an important component of most high performance management systems. According to Batt, (1996) “Two decades of research in organizational behavior provides considerable evidence that workers in self-managed teams enjoy greater autonomy and discretion, and this effect translates into intrinsic rewards and job satisfaction; teams also outperform traditionally supervised groups in the majority of …empirical…studies” (p. 340). Focusing on both performance and the teams that deliver it will materially increase top management’s prospects of leading their companies to become high performance organizations. The dynamics that drive teams mirror the behaviors and values necessary to the high performance organizations (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993).
Assessing Business Risk: Development of the Entrepreneurial Risk Assessment Scale
By Miles, D. Anthony (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word,
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 MILES 2010
One of the primary concerns in a small business is the problem of risk. Many who begin the start-up process terminate it in less than one year. Of those that survive, many are unable to achieve sustained growth and profits. Small-to-medium business enterprises (SME) have a 50% to 90% chance of failure within the first five years. While there are measures of personal risk behavior of entrepreneurs, the literature contains no measure of risk orientation for the enterprise.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a researcher-designed instrument to measure the critical forces of business risk. The 37-item Entrepreneurial Risk Assessment Scale (ERAS) was developed from key theoretical concepts grounded in economics, marketing, management, finance, and entrepreneurship literature. It was developed and finalized through a process of reviewing literature, subject matter expert panel’s review, and a pilot test. The a priori assumption of the ERAS constructs were (a) personal characteristics, (b) intangible operations, (c) enterprise operations, (d) market climate, and (e) business environment.
This study utilized a qualitative methodology to establish construct, content, and criterion validity using Bryant’s (2000) framework found in Reading and Understanding More Multivariate Statistics edited by Grimm and Yarnold (2000). A sample (N=276) was taken from an urban/suburban area in South Texas. A principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis was used to establish construct validity; a principle component analysis (PCA) was used to establish content validity; and a logistical regression was used to establish criterion validity. Reliability was assessed within the efforts to establish content validity.
What emerged from both the factor analyses were five new factors of entrepreneurial risk that were different form the a priori assumptions and thus renamed: (a) customer and resources, (b) security, (c) operations, (d) external pressures, and (e) other/alternate factors. The results of the PAF and PCA provided strong support for the content and construct validity of the ERAS instrument. In the assessment of criterion validity, the logistic regression analysis showed the endogenous factors, (a) customer and resources, and (c) operations reliably predicted risk behavior of both nascent and incumbent SMEs.
Leadership Styles of African American Women Presidents of Colleges and Universities: Lifting as We Climb
By Moore, Renee Thurston (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word,
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 MOORE 2003
This multi-method study examined the leadership styles of five African American women presidents of colleges and universities. Through interviews, questionnaires, and document analysis, this researcher explored the environmental, organizational, and cultural realities of their presidencies, the challenges they face, and their effectiveness as leaders. Transformational leadership, as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and Fischer and Koch’s (1996) guidance for an effective presidency provided theoretical frameworks from which the presidents’ effectiveness as leaders was explored.
Vision, motivation of their employees, and accomplishment of their goals through the buy-in of others were leadership qualities characteristic among these women. The presidents’ self-ratings and the ratings of their faculty and staff on the MLQ indicated that they were effective transformational leaders.
A traditional hierarchical organizational was the predominant arrangement of their faculty and staff, although each verbally espoused a participatory form of governance. Their institutions were viable, open, supportive, and student-centered. Race and gender were seen as both disadvantages and advantages in their presidencies but were not issues that plagued their presidency. A formal support network of African American women presidents did not exist among these leaders. Instead, their support systems were made up of one or more close friends or colleagues in whom they could confide. Other themes of significance in the leadership of these presidents were access and excellence, work ethic and balance, development and change, and trust. These factors were discussed and the implications of the findings for policymakers were considered.
Motivation and Vicarious Empowerment of Black Male Adolescents Through Simulation and Structured Experiences
By Orange, Carolyn M. (Department of Education—Washington University, May 1991).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 ORANGE 1991
Description (Introductory Statement):
America is a country that is proud of its heritage and proud of the position of power it holds in the world. Unfortunately, that power is not shared by all groups; it is unevenly distributed with a higher concentration of power in the white sector of the population. That leaves young black males who have been disempowered by past circumstances, needing power, or needing the perception of being able to influence outcomes and/or control their environment.
These young men feel powerless and they are frustrated and angry from being oppressed. They want their share of the American pie, even if it means they will have to take it by force, even if it means hurting someone else, even if it means performing illegal acts to get it. They want and need power. To compound this problem, a large percentage of black male adolescents are academically deficient in a period of time when there is increasing demand for academic proficiency.
Traditional education has failed many of these young men and they do not trust it anymore. They are not motivated to be active, productive participants in the educational process. They often reject education as a white prerogative or see it as a feminine pursuit. They feel powerless in the traditional academic setting, magnifying their need for power.
To further complicate matters, the young black male has become an outcast in American society. In his quest for power and participation, he has alienated society. Many young black Americans have found power in drugs, drug-trafficking and other illegal activities. To young blacks, money is power, and these activities are ways to obtain money and subsequently power. They have always seen evidence that getting an education does not necessarily mean that they will get a good job. In some of the rap songs the lyrics point out that many young blacks with degrees are forced to work for fast food chains doing jobs that require little education. Therefore, this observation provides young black men with little incentive to become productive, employable citizens. Many young black males see the roadblocks tailored for blacks as impossible to overcome, underscoring their need for power, and arousing a negative power motive.
A Nonlinear Programming Approach to Product Bundling of Add-on Services
By Orange, John H. (Doctor of Philosophy—Saint Louis University, 1995).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 ORANGE 1995
Description (Introductory Statement):
The business world is constantly faced with the challenge of introducing new products and services. While new product development is the true source of growth for any industry, successful introduction of new products is an essential element for the survival of any firm. Successful product introduction is determined by the firm’s strategic planning, deployment of resources and the interaction of customer and competitor oriented marketing factors.
Product line selection and pricing are two intricately linked factors, that influence the consumer’s perception of a firm’s total product-service offering (Monroe and Zoltners 1979; Reibstein and Gatignon 1983). Bundled products or services can be marketed in the same product line with individual product or service offerings (Eppen et al. 1991; Paun 1993). Product bundling can extend a firm’s product line, by adding a bundled offering that may move closer to the customer’s perceived ideal bundle of benefits than any individual product or service (Day, Shocker and Srivastava 1979; Ennis and Roering 1981; Lawless 1991). The pricing of the bundle will determine whether the consumer perceives any difference between the bundled offering and the separate offers for the component products or services included in the bundle.
This study addresses the problem of determining product line pricing and bundle composition for add-on services offered by electronic communication service companies. Survey research methods are used to estimate the demand schedules for each of the add-on services, within a reservation price segmentation structure. Profit optimizing prices are determined, for the bundle and the individual service offerings, by maximizing a profitability function. The profitability function is defined as a constrained nonlinear function of price. The constraints on the nonlinear function are defined by: (1) the bounded range of prices for the bundle and individual service offerings, and (2) the conceptual relationship between the price for a bundled product and the summation of prices for the individual service offerings. The Generalized Reduced Gradient method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem.
African American Male Academic Success
By Scott, Lawrence L. (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, May 2011).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 SCOTT 2011
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of 10 selected academically successful African American male leaders. In this study, “academic success” was defined as these African American men who attained a master’s or postgraduate degree such as a M.D., Ph.D., or J.D. Even though there is bountiful research on the deficiencies in the lives of African American males, it is still unclear what conditions lead African American men to higher educational attainment. The goal of this study was to also add to the deficient, ever-emerging body of research in the area of African American male educational attainment, while providing viable solutions that speak to the plights of African American males from all educational backgrounds and experiences. Using a basic interpretive qualitative inquiry format, the research questions focused on (a) how professional and familial social capital is related to academic success, (b) the participant’s perception of the role of resilience in the pursuit of academic attainment, and (c) how does self-efficacy influence academic success for these African American male participants?
This research analyzed recurring themes from these participants, who were solicited because they can provide expert testimony on how an African American male can achieve academically. The inquiry produced three recurring themes: Self-Belief and Identity, Social Network and Support, and Faith, Spirituality, and Inspiration. After a comprehensive qualitative analysis of the themes, the following categories emerged: Resilience Over Faulty Mindsets; Competition; Above Mediocrity; Social Network and Support; Family; Positive Influences, Mentors and Peers; Opportunities; Faith, Spirituality, and Inspiration; Faith in a Higher Power; and Historical Responsibility. All the participants identified Social Network and Support as a major factor in their academic success. Most participants credited a parent, peer, mentor, or teacher as the most influential person that helped them throughout their educational pursuits.
Classroom Teacher Attitudes Toward Inclusion with Emphasis on Students with Visual Impairments
By Sinkfield, Carolin (Doctor of Philosophy--University of the Incarnate Word, May 2006).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Sinkfield 2006
The purpose of this sequential mixed method study was to investigate classroom teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion in three school districts. The emphasis was on the students with visual impairments in the second phase of the study. The deductive drive of the research process examined teachers’ favorableness toward certain disabilities; compared teacher favorableness with teacher experience; and examined differences in regular and special educators and their favorableness toward certain disabilities. Four disability groups in the study were social, physical, academic, and behavioral integration.
A purposeful sampling and demographic information were extracted from 104 participants for the quantitative phase. Nine participants in the qualitative phase engaged in face-to-face interviews. Mezirow’s transformational learning and Thurston’s attitudinal theory created the backdrop or theoretical framework for this study.
Results from the study indicated that teachers most preferred students in the social group and least preferred students in the behavioral group for the inclusive classroom. The second most preferred group was the physical group, which contained sensory impairments like visual impairment. In summary, teachers had none to minimal experience teaching students with visual impairments, and training on this topic was at a minimum.
The goal of the researcher in this study was to contribute to the extant body of knowledge regarding teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular education and to suggest future research to promote successful inclusive practices.
The Relationships of Transformational/Transactional Leadership Behavior of Elementary School Principals with Teacher Outcomes: Extra Effort, Effectiveness and Satisfaction
By Small, Sharon K. Murphy (Doctor of Philosophy in Leadership Studies)
(Our Lady of the Lake University, August 2003).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Small 2003
The present study aimed at examining the relationship between principal leadership styles of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire in terms of teacher satisfaction, teacher perception of effectiveness and teacher willingness to exert extra effort. The population sample for this study was elementary school principals and teachers in a public school system. A total of four hundred seventy elementary teachers and forty-seven principals were invited to participate. Fifty-three percent (N=253) of the teachers responded to the survey and 91% (N=43) principals responded. About 50% of the responses returned were usable. The survey instrument used was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5x or MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 1995). The MLQ 5x, a 45-item questionnaire, was scored by both leaders (principal) and the raters (teacher). Selected questions of the MLQ rate the principals as leaders with laissez-faire, transactional or transformational leadership behaviors. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis to explore the relationships studied. Results revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between leadership styles and satisfaction, effectiveness and willingness to exert extra effort. Implications and recommendations were made for further research and practice.
The Perceptions of African American Women Concerning the Intangible Cost(s) and or Benefit(s) of a Post-Baccalaureate Education and Career Choices
By Waiters, Linn R. (Doctor of Philosophy— University of the Incarnate Word, May, 2011).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Waiters 2011
This qualitative study explored the perceptions of 10 African American women concerning their thoughts and beliefs about the intangible cost(s) and/or benefit(s) of a post-baccalaureate education and/or professional career choices. The narratives told by the participants, revealed nothing new when it came to childhood dreams. It is not uncommon for children to dream of what they want to do when they grow up. The study participants followed the path laid out or suggested by their parents who supported and encouraged them toward successful pursuits in whatever they chose. The parents of the participants in this study are no exception, and the results do not deviate from this belief. By setting high academic standards and making greater demands of them at an early age, the results were academic and economic achievement. Two findings stood out in this research: first, how parental and especially a mother’s expectation or socialization could affect the outcome of their daughters’ live, and that the participant(s) would without exception follow their mother’s direction; and second, what the researcher considered as a “cost” for achievements and success, the participants thought of as a “sacrifice.”
An Evaluation of a Formal Clinical Preceptor Program: A Prototype of a Model Program to Train Preceptors Health Services Track
By Williams, Sarah J. (Doctor of Philosophy—Walden University, February 1991).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Williams 1991
This study sought to prove the effectiveness of a formal clinical preceptor program for Initial Active Duty nurses and experienced transient nurses transferring within the United States Air Force system to Keesler Medical Center.
The purpose of this study was to determine (1) perceived effectiveness of the preceptor approach to orientation, (2) if the preceptor method provided orientee satisfaction, (3) if a perceived relationship existed between preceptorship recruitment and retention, (4) how well the preceptor preparatory training prepared preceptors to perform their duties, (5) if preceptor training provided comfort and skill, and constituted importance of the role, (6) areas in the preceptor training workshop which needed increased or decreased emphasis, (7) difficulties identified by preceptors as a result of inadequate training received in the preceptor workshop, and (8) if the preceptor program should be continued at Keesler Medical Center.
Questionnaires were distributed to 172 nurses including past orientees, charge nurses and actively practicing preceptors. A separate questionnaire was distributed to each group. One hundred twenty nurses including 63 past orientees, 14 charge nurses and 45 preceptors, responded to the questionnaire.
Data resulting from the study revealed that past orientees and charge nurses perceived the preceptor method as an effective approach to orienting new nurses. Past orientees agreed that they were overall satisfied with the orientation they received. It was also concluded that there is a perceived relationship between retention of nurses at Keesler Medical Center, but results of data failed to prove that there is a perceived relationship between recruitment and preceptor program. Preceptors and charge nurses were overall satisfied with the preparatory training provided for preceptors. The majority of preceptors (84%) agreed that training in preceptoring provided comfort and skill in the preceptor role and constituted a perceived importance of the role. Data further revealed that the majority of task knowledge items taught in the preceptor workshop was adequate in emphasis. However, two items were rated by the largest number of respondents needing increased emphasis. Preceptors identified no difficulties in performing their roles which was a result of inadequate training. Over 97% of the respondents agreed that the preceptor program should be continued at Keesler Medical Center.
Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the clinical preceptor program effectively impacts on the performance of Initial Active Duty nurses and experienced transient nurses transferring to Keesler Medical Center.
Investigating Truancy in Secondary Schools
By Williams, Langston B. Jr. (Doctor of Philosophy)
(University of the Incarnate Word, December 2010).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Williams 2010
This qualitative case study investigates the perceptions of parents and students in one particular high school in an urban area located in the southwestern region of the United States in order to gain insight as to why truancy occurs, what causes it, and what can be done to prevent it. This study utilized an ethnographic case study design methodology using an in-depth interviews and use of a survey questionnaire as the primary strategy. The focus was on the participants’ perceptions of their experiences in the educational system, the reasons they gave and how they evaluated their experiences in the educational system, the reasons they gave and how they evaluated their experiences as they moved through the system. The study was conducted at only one high school campus which was a member of an independent school district consisting of seven high school campuses. The participants were truant students who attended Saturday School in order to makeup time loss due to excessive absences. These students were in jeopardy of losing credit in classes where they had exceeded the number of absences required by the state attendance laws in order to gain credit.
As the need for high school education increases, issues of truancy continue to be of importance, especially among minority populations in the United States. The focus on “at-risk” students has stipulated discussion on how to keep these students from dropping out, concentrating on students who succeed despite the odds against their success. These students are often low income first-generation students who have minimum preparation for college coursework and no role models for college success in their families. While academic efficacy is often associated with school success, truancy has also been identified as a major contributing factor to student failure.
Four dominant themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews conducted: student conditions, family conditions, school conditions, and community conditions. A majority of all the students identified peer pressure and lack of interest in certain classes as factors which influenced their decision to skip class. The fact that it was so easy to leave campus and lack of consequences were also mentioned by several participants as factors which contributed significantly to their truancy. The researcher will analyze the results of the study to suggest strategies that could be effective in future efforts to eliminate truancy.
Reflections of African American CEOs of Community Colleges: Racial Identity and Educational Experiences in Segregated and Integrated Schools
By Williams, Angela McPherson (Doctor of Philosophy)
(University of the Incarnate Word, Spring 2002).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Williams 2002
The intent of this qualitative study is to analyze the experiences of 26 African American Chief Executive Officers of community colleges in the United States. Through historical study and the subjects’ own words, the study paints a vivid portrait of racism, personal struggle and ultimate triumph of both the CEOs, and African Americans collectively.
Principal topics include Supreme Court decisions based on racial issues, the influences of Black leaders such as Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois, and the CEO’s experiences while attending integrated and segregated schools. Other crucial areas discussed are the impact of the Civil Rights Movement, and the use of Critical Race Theory as a research methodology. William Cross’ Theory of Nigrescence contributes further analysis of the issues by the application of Cross’ theory to the CEOs’ experiences of racial identity.
Based on data collected through questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and personal artifacts, seven themes emerged. These themes indicate that the participants’ personal and professional achievement was due to perseverance, preparedness, strong support systems, connection to family and the recognition of the need to “reclaim one’s cultural center” by acknowledging ancestors, ethnicity, and uniqueness.
The study leads us to conclude that both segregation and integration were key influences that provided many strong, positive and negative life experiences for the CEOs. Yet, the blending of those experiences served as a catalyst that sparked their aspirations, motivation, and ultimately, the fulfillment of their academic and professional success.
Paternal Involvement in the Education of Children: How Fathers Communicated with their Sons about the Value of Education
By Wortham, Argentina Roscoe (Doctor of Philosophy)
(University of Texas, Austin, May 2005).
Call Number: REFERENCE 378.2 Wortham 2005
This two-year qualitative study looks at the life experiences of fathers who had sons that graduated from high school. Grounded in the current fatherhood literature, the study used the benchmark definition of a successful father as “white, college-educated, and middle-class,” as the study examined the strategies these fathers used to get their sons to complete high school. Specifically, the study focused on father involvement, how the fathers encouraged their sons, and the type of contributions the fathers made toward their sons’ graduation.
The critical-case sample consisted of one family [father, mother and two sons] and a homogeneous group of four other ‘benchmarked fathers.’ The fathers in this study ranged in age from 41 to 58. They all had a biological son who had completed high school, and were still married to their son’s mother.
Data gathered and generated for this interpretivist study included interviews with the critical-case complete family, which included a mother, two sons, and the father, and a focus group of the other four fathers. These data were analyzed based on the three research questions that focused on involvement, encouragement and contribution as defined by current fatherhood researchers, using a constant comparison method, which lead to the emergence of themes that formed the basis for the study’s findings.
Five key findings surfaced in a hierarchical model analogized to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and labeled the NIOBE model. At the apex of these findings was the finding that these fathers were more focused on producing sons who were “equipped” to take care of themselves, than they were focused on getting their son graduated from high school. The result of these fathers’ “intentional” focus resulted in sons who succeeded in graduating from high school, and eventually all went to college. Education became the means toward an end, the end being cultivating self-actualized “equipped sons”. To arrive at this level, the fathers grounded this desire in a commitment to accept a “new father awareness,” which was unlike the way they were fathered. Using this awareness, these fathers became “intentional” about making sure their sons knew what had to be done to move to the next level, that of “ownership,” where the sons owned their actions and accepted the consequences associated with becoming their own man. “Bi-stewarding,” the fourth finding, was contextualized by the sons as they moved beyond simple ownership by becoming responsible in many ways for their own parenting, eventually emerging as a son who had been empowered to accept their educational experience as their own, and who engaged in their own educational experiences to make them capable of leaving and independently functioning away from home.